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Watch this video about three chemistry experiments that changed the world:

Achievements, advances and contributions of modern medical science:Logros, avances y contribuciones de la medicina moderna:

The eradication of infectious diseases: La erradicación de enfermedades infecciosas.

The prevention of nutritional deficiencies: La prevención de deficiencias nutricionales.

Successful treatments for once deadly infections: Tratamientos eficaces para infecciones antes mortales.
Without science, many people alive today would have instead died of diseases that are now easily treated.

The discovery of antibioticsEl descubrimiento de los antibióticos.

The discovery of vaccines: El descubrimiento de las vacunas.

General anesthesia put an end to much of the pain of operations.

The discovery of DNA structure: At this point in time, the benefits of gene therapy are more promise than reality.  There's another potential benefit to the unravelling of DNA: predicting the likelihood of disease by looking at your genetic code.

Advance in medical human cloning: Avances en la clonación humana con fines médicos o terapeúticos :

Embryonic stem cells: Células madre embrionarias.

Early-stage embryos: Embriones en fase temprana (blastocitos - 5 ó 6 días de desarrollo).

APPLICATIONS OF THERAPEUTIC CLONING: This finding offers new ways of generating stem cells for patients with dysfunctional or damaged tissues and organs: Este hallazgo proporciona nuevas formas de generar células madre para pacientes con tejidos u órganos disfuncionales o dañados. The Guardian

THE TECHNIQUE: ...they fuse a skin cell and an egg with its nucleus removed, then apply an electric shock to make the resulting cell grow. The process has worked in some animals, but until now had failed in humans: ...fusionan una célula adulta de la piel y un óvulo, al que se le ha extraído el núcleo; luego se le aplica una descarga eléctrica para hacer que la célula resultante crezca. La técnica ha funcionado en algunos animales, pero hasta ahora había fallado en personas. The Guardian

The cloned embryos were used as a source of stem cells, which can make new heart muscle, bone, brain tissue or any other type of cell in the body: Los embriones clonados se usaban como fuente de células madre para generar nuevas células del corazón, óseas, del tejido cerebral o cualquier otro tipo de célula del cuerpo. BBC News

ETHICAL ISSUES : Opponents of the new technique argue that all embryos, whether created in the lab or not, have the potential to go on to become a fully-fledged human, and as such it is morally wrong to experiment on them: Los que están en contra de la nueva técnica sostienen que todo embrión, creado o no en el laboratorio, puede seguir desarrollándose hasta convertirse en una persona con todas las de la ley, y como tal es inmoral experimentar con ellos. BBC News

However advocates of the new technique say that the embryos created from this technique could never become viable human beings: Sin embargo, los defensores dicen que los embriones creados mediante esta técnica nunca podrían convertirse en seres humanos. BBC News

Earth Science: Ciencias de la Tierra
Earth scientists use tools from physics, chemistry, biology, chronology and mathematics to build a quantitative understanding of how the Earth system works, and how it evolved to its current state.

The formal discipline of Earth sciences include the study of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, oceans and biosphere, as well as the solid earth.

Benefits of science:
  • Science has provided comfort to human beings: Household appliances (electrodomésticos), air-conditioner, heater...
  • There is a wide variety of means of transportation (medios de transporte) such as buses, cars, trains and aeroplanes, which have shortened distances.
  • Advances in medical care and pharmacological interventions have increased our life expectancy (esperanza de vida).
  • Science provides us with knowledge and a greater understanding of the world around us.
Negative impact of science:
  • The industrial development has brought significant environmental damage and new diseases.
  • The development of destructive weapons.
  • The cruelty of animal testing.

> Lee este artículo acerca de la diferencia entre los términos "descubrimiento" e "invento". Fíjate en las expresiones idiomáticas y conectores destacados, que puedes incorporar a tus escritos.

Difference Between Discovery and Invention

Discovery vs Invention

In a casual everyday conversation, one would most likely interchange the words ‘discovery’ and ‘invention’, nonchalantly so. Many would settle with the presumption that these are one and the same. On the other hand, there are those who would like to debate that they are entirely different for a good number of ineligible reasons. And the determining factor, the object they point to. Rule of thumb is that discoveries apply to those that have been long existent, while inventions, to those that have never existed in the past.

To invent is akin to creating something completely distinct and was non-existent prior to the act. In natural sciences, a thing or an instance is considered as such when it is embodied in artifacts, tools, machinery etc. Examples of inventions would be wheels, automobile, scissors, umbrella, ballpoint pen, telephone and so on. Inventions are derived from materials that have been previously discovered and even from a collection and integration of earlier inventions. For instance, the wheel is an invention derived from wood, rubber or metal – materials that have been in existence ever since. Another example – the ballpoint pen is an invention that integrated prior discoveries and inventions such as ink, metal, and plastic tube. In other words, it is an integration of materials that produced an entirely distinct tool. To invent is to plan and produce something to meet a specific purpose. For instance, the invention of scissors was driven by the need for a tool that can cut objects efficiently and meticulously. It was designed for a specific purpose.

Discovery is an entirely different thing. It is to detect something new. Note the verb ‘to detect’. It does not necessarily mean to create or produce the object of discovery, but rather it is to make it known. Most importantly, discoveries apply to any natural occurrence. Isaac Newton discovered gravity; he did not invent it. Scientifically speaking, gravity is something that has already existed even before the Earth was formed. Newton did not create it. He detected and gave a name to it. Discoveries let people know and recognize factual occurrences that have existed long before. For instance, before Newton gave a distinction to what we now call gravity, the public were not aware or consciously concerned of it. The discovery of it led to public awareness. It made them understand the concept behind such force and not to mention, led to further ground-breaking discoveries that unraveled how the universe works. Like inventions, discoveries can be purposely planned through explorations or can be unexpected as well. For example, guys at NASA send teams to conduct space exploration partly for new discoveries. They may have or not have a hint of what they are about to find.

By and large, invention and discovery work hand in hand. As mentioned earlier, inventions are a result of materials and occurrences discovered even prior to the thought of coming up with the invention. A good example would be the automobile, an original creation derived from metals, gas, rubber and other raw materials that were apparently discovered even before the conception of such invention. In the same manner, discoveries are sometimes made known through the help of inventions. For instance, the invention of the space shuttle led to discoveries about the moon and planets neighboring Earth.


A discovery pertains detecting something new. An object of discovery has already been existent prior to the actual discovery.
An invention is an original concept or thing that has not been existent prior to actual invention.
A discovery pertains to natural occurrences while an invention, to man-made artifacts, tools, processes etc.
Discovery and invention work hand in hand. Inventions are an integration of things that have already been discovered in the same way that new discoveries can be found through the help of inventions.
Source: Difference Between.net

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